Early electric bicycles from 2000 or so mainly used hub motors on the front or rear wheel. Many of these came from Taiwanese or Chinese suppliers. Some were direct-drive hubs; others were geared hubs which often used injected-molded-and-not-particularly-shock-resistant plastic gears. The quality varied, but, with their hand-wound stators and somewhat lackluster engineering, most didn’t—to be kind—meet high reliability standards. If those early eBikes weren’t the hallmark of reliability, most bicycle shops—who were new to electric vehicles as well—were also struggling to deal with the new technical challenges. As you can imagine, this didn’t always make for happy customers.